Environmental Science & Engineering (EVS)

UNIT I

INTRODUCTION TO ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES AND NATURAL RESOURCES:

Definition, scope and importance – Need for public awareness – Forest resources: Use, effect of their over exploitation– Water resources: Surface source, subsurface source, Rainwater harvesting (Methods & merits and simple layout) – Mineral resources: Types, effects of their over exploitation– Food resources: World food problems, changes caused by agriculture and overgrazing, effects of modern agriculture, fertilizer-pesticide problems, water logging, salinity, Drainage and their effects– Energy resources: Growing energy needs, renewable and non renewable energy sources, use of alternate energy sources – Land resources: Land as a resource, land degradation, soil erosion– Exhaustible and Inexhaustible energy sources – Equitable use of resources for sustainable lifestyles.

UNIT II

ECOSYSTEMS AND BIODIVERSITY:

Concept of an ecosystem – Structure and function of an ecosystem – Producers, consumers and decomposers – Energy flow in the ecosystem – Ecological succession – Food chains, food webs and ecological pyramids – Introduction, types, characteristic features, structure and function of the (a) Forest ecosystem (b) Grassland ecosystem (c) Desert ecosystem (d) Aquatic ecosystems (ponds, streams, lakes, rivers, oceans, estuaries) – Introduction to Biodiversity – Definition: genetic, species and ecosystem diversity – Bio geographical classification of India – Value of biodiversity: consumptive use, productive use, social, ethical, aesthetic and option values – Biodiversity at global, National and local levels – India as a mega-diversity nation – Hot-spots of biodiversity – Threats to biodiversity: habitat loss, poaching of wildlife, man-wildlife conflicts – Endangered and endemic species of India – Conservation of biodiversity: In-situ and Ex-situ conservation of biodiversity. Field study of common plants, insects, birds, Field study of simple ecosystems – pond, river, hill slopes, etc.

UNIT III

ENVIRONMENTAL POLLUTION:

Definition – Causes, effects and control measures of: (a) Air pollution (b) Water pollution (c) Soil pollution (d) Marine pollution (e) Noise pollution (f) Thermal pollution (g) Nuclear hazards – Soil waste Management: Causes, effects and control measures of urban and industrial wastes – Role of an individual in prevention of pollution – Pollution case studies – Disaster management: floods, earthquake, cyclone and landslides. Field Study of local polluted site – Urban / Rural / Industrial / Agricultural

UNIT IV

SOCIAL ISSUES AND THE ENVIRONMENT:

From Unsustainable to Sustainable development – Urban problems related to energy – Water conservation, rain water harvesting, watershed management – Resettlement and rehabilitation of people; its problems and concerns, case studies – Environmental ethics: Issues and possible solutions – Climate change, global warming, acid rain, ozone layer depletion, nuclear accidents and holocaust, case studies. – Wasteland reclamation – Consumerism and waste products – Environment Production Act – Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act – Water (Prevention and control of Pollution) Act – Wildlife Protection Act – Forest Conservation Act – Issues involved in enforcement of environmental legislation – Public awareness

UNIT V

HUMAN POPULATION AND THE ENVIRONMENT:

Population growth, variation among nations – Population explosion – Family Welfare Programme – Environment and human health – Human Rights – Value Education – HIV / AIDS – Women and Child Welfare – Role of Information Technology in Environment and human health – Case studies.

TEXT BOOKS

  1. Environmental Science and Engineering by Dr. A. Ravikrishnan.
  2. Miller T.G. Jr., Environmental Science, Wadsworth Publishing Co.
  3. Townsend C., Harper J and Michael Begon, Essentials of Ecology, Blackwell Science.
  4. Gilbert M.Masters, Introduction to Environmental Engineering and Science, Pearson Education Pvt., Ltd., Second Edition

REFERENCES

  1. Bharucha Erach, The Biodiversity of India, Mapin Publishing Pvt. Ltd., Ahmedabad India, Email: mapin@icenet.net
  2. Trivedi R.K., Handbook of Environmental Laws, Rules, Guidelines, Compliances and Standards, Vol. I and II, Enviro Media.
  3. Cunningham, W.P.Cooper, T.H.Gorhani, Environmental Encyclopedia, Jaico Publ., House, Mumbai, 2001.
  4. Wager K.D., Environmental Management, W.B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, USA, 1998.

 

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