INTRODUCTION TO ENVIRONMENTAL STUDIES AND NATURAL RESOURCES:
Definition, scope and importance – Need for public awareness – Forest resources: Use, effect of their over exploitation– Water resources: Surface source, subsurface source, Rainwater harvesting (Methods & merits and simple layout) – Mineral resources: Types, effects of their over exploitation– Food resources: World food problems, changes caused by agriculture and overgrazing, effects of modern agriculture, fertilizer-pesticide problems, water logging, salinity, Drainage and their effects– Energy resources: Growing energy needs, renewable and non renewable energy sources, use of alternate energy sources – Land resources: Land as a resource, land degradation, soil erosion– Exhaustible and Inexhaustible energy sources – Equitable use of resources for sustainable lifestyles.
ECOSYSTEMS AND BIODIVERSITY:
Concept of an ecosystem – Structure and function of an ecosystem – Producers, consumers and decomposers – Energy flow in the ecosystem – Ecological succession – Food chains, food webs and ecological pyramids – Introduction, types, characteristic features, structure and function of the (a) Forest ecosystem (b) Grassland ecosystem (c) Desert ecosystem (d) Aquatic ecosystems (ponds, streams, lakes, rivers, oceans, estuaries) – Introduction to Biodiversity – Definition: genetic, species and ecosystem diversity – Bio geographical classification of India – Value of biodiversity: consumptive use, productive use, social, ethical, aesthetic and option values – Biodiversity at global, National and local levels – India as a mega-diversity nation – Hot-spots of biodiversity – Threats to biodiversity: habitat loss, poaching of wildlife, man-wildlife conflicts – Endangered and endemic species of India – Conservation of biodiversity: In-situ and Ex-situ conservation of biodiversity. Field study of common plants, insects, birds, Field study of simple ecosystems – pond, river, hill slopes, etc.
Definition – Causes, effects and control measures of: (a) Air pollution (b) Water pollution (c) Soil pollution (d) Marine pollution (e) Noise pollution (f) Thermal pollution (g) Nuclear hazards – Soil waste Management: Causes, effects and control measures of urban and industrial wastes – Role of an individual in prevention of pollution – Pollution case studies – Disaster management: floods, earthquake, cyclone and landslides. Field Study of local polluted site – Urban / Rural / Industrial / Agricultural
SOCIAL ISSUES AND THE ENVIRONMENT:
From Unsustainable to Sustainable development – Urban problems related to energy – Water conservation, rain water harvesting, watershed management – Resettlement and rehabilitation of people; its problems and concerns, case studies – Environmental ethics: Issues and possible solutions – Climate change, global warming, acid rain, ozone layer depletion, nuclear accidents and holocaust, case studies. – Wasteland reclamation – Consumerism and waste products – Environment Production Act – Air (Prevention and Control of Pollution) Act – Water (Prevention and control of Pollution) Act – Wildlife Protection Act – Forest Conservation Act – Issues involved in enforcement of environmental legislation – Public awareness
HUMAN POPULATION AND THE ENVIRONMENT:
Population growth, variation among nations – Population explosion – Family Welfare Programme – Environment and human health – Human Rights – Value Education – HIV / AIDS – Women and Child Welfare – Role of Information Technology in Environment and human health – Case studies.
- Environmental Science and Engineering by Dr. A. Ravikrishnan.
- Miller T.G. Jr., Environmental Science, Wadsworth Publishing Co.
- Townsend C., Harper J and Michael Begon, Essentials of Ecology, Blackwell Science.
- Gilbert M.Masters, Introduction to Environmental Engineering and Science, Pearson Education Pvt., Ltd., Second Edition
- Bharucha Erach, The Biodiversity of India, Mapin Publishing Pvt. Ltd., Ahmedabad India, Email: email@example.com
- Trivedi R.K., Handbook of Environmental Laws, Rules, Guidelines, Compliances and Standards, Vol. I and II, Enviro Media.
- Cunningham, W.P.Cooper, T.H.Gorhani, Environmental Encyclopedia, Jaico Publ., House, Mumbai, 2001.
- Wager K.D., Environmental Management, W.B. Saunders Co., Philadelphia, USA, 1998.
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